Hibernate @Version Annotation

Hibernate, a popular Java-based Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework, offers several powerful features to simplify database interactions in your applications. One such feature is the @Version annotation, which plays a vital role in achieving optimistic concurrency control. In this blog, we’ll explore what the @Version annotation is, why and where you should use it, and provide a practical example of its application.

What is the @Version Annotation?

The @Version annotation is a part of the Java Persistence API (JPA) standard and is used to implement optimistic concurrency control in Hibernate. This mechanism ensures that multiple users can work with the same data simultaneously without causing data inconsistencies or conflicts. It’s particularly useful in applications where concurrent access to data is common.

Why and Where to Use @Version Annotation?

1. Prevent Data Conflicts

The primary purpose of the @Version annotation is to prevent data conflicts in a multi-user environment. When multiple users access and modify the same database record simultaneously, you risk overwriting changes made by another user unknowingly. With the @Version annotation, Hibernate can detect and handle such conflicts, ensuring data integrity.

2. Optimistic Concurrency Control

Optimistic concurrency control is a strategy that assumes conflicts are rare and that most transactions can proceed concurrently without any issues. It involves the following steps:

  1. A version number or timestamp is associated with each record in the database. This is usually a numeric field that increments with each update or a timestamp that changes with every modification.
  2. Before an update is applied, Hibernate checks if the version number of the entity being modified matches the version number stored in the database. If they match, the update is allowed to proceed.
  3. If the version numbers do not match, it means another user has already modified the same record. In this case, Hibernate will throw an exception, allowing you to handle the conflict gracefully.

3. Improved Data Integrity

By using the @Version annotation, you can significantly improve data integrity in your application. Data conflicts can lead to inconsistent records, and optimistic concurrency control ensures that these conflicts are resolved gracefully without data loss.

4. Better Performance

Optimistic concurrency control, as implemented by the @Version annotation, is generally more performant than pessimistic locking, which would lock records during the entire transaction. With optimistic concurrency control, locks are acquired only when needed, allowing for better overall performance.

Achieving Optimistic Concurrency Control with @Version Annotation

Let’s see how you can use the @Version annotation with a practical example. In this example, we’ll create an entity called Product with a version field to control concurrent access.

public class Product {
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;
    private String name;
    private double price;
    private int version;
    // getters and setters

In this Product entity, we’ve annotated the version field with @Version. Now, whenever you update a Product entity, Hibernate will automatically manage the version field, ensuring that concurrent updates are handled correctly.

Here’s how you can use it in your code:

EntityManager em = // Obtain the entity manager

Product product = em.find(Product.class, 1L);

// At this point, Hibernate checks the version and updates the record only if the version matches.


In the code snippet above, Hibernate checks the version number when committing the transaction. If another user has modified the same Product entity since it was loaded, Hibernate will throw an exception, indicating a concurrency conflict.

Preferred Data Type

The data type for the @Version annotation in Hibernate is typically an integral type, such as int, long, or java.lang.Long. This field serves as the version control mechanism to handle optimistic concurrency control. Hibernate will automatically increment or update this field when changes are made to the entity, allowing it to detect conflicts when multiple users attempt to modify the same record concurrently.


The @Version annotation in Hibernate is a powerful tool to implement optimistic concurrency control, prevent data conflicts, and ensure data integrity in multi-user applications. By using this annotation, you can improve performance and provide a seamless experience for users, even in highly concurrent environments. So, the next time you work on a project with concurrent data access, consider using the @Version annotation to enhance your application’s stability and reliability.


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    Atul Rai
    I love sharing my experiments and ideas with everyone by writing articles on the latest technological trends. Read all published posts by Atul Rai.